List of current and former capital cities within U.S. states

From Academic Kids

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Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital.

This is a list of the current and former national and subnational capitals (legislature or government seat) of states, territories, colonies, or kingdoms located in the United States, organized by current U.S. state location. Washington, D.C., the national capital, is not located in any state; current state capitals are noted in boldface font.



Located in Place When, Whose

St. Stephens, Alabama2 Territorial capital (18171819)
Huntsville, Alabama2 1819
Cahawba, Alabama2 18201826
Tuscaloosa, Alabama2 18261846
Montgomery, Alabama2 Confederate States national capital (February 4, 1861May 29, 1861), current state capital

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Sitka, Alaska4 Russian capital (as New Archangel), military department capital, district capital (—1900 de jure, 1906 de facto)
Juneau, Alaska3 District capital (1900 de jure, 1906 de facto1912), territorial capital, current state capital

Prescott, Arizona5 Territorial capital (18641867; 18771889)
Tucson, Arizona5 Territorial capital (18671877)
Phoenix, Arizona5 Territorial capital (18891912), state capital (1912–current)

Arkansas Post, Arkansas6 Territorial capital (18191821)
Washington, Arkansas6,7 Confederate state government capital (18631865)
Little Rock, Arkansas Territorial capital (18211836), state capital (1836–current)

Monterey, California9 Capital of Alta and Baja California under Spanish and Mexican rule (17771850)
San José, California8 State capital (18501851)
Vallejo, California8 State capital (18511853)
Benicia, California8 State capital (18531854)
Sacramento, California8 State capital (1854–current)

Auraria, Kansas Territory10 Territory of Jefferson capital (18591861)
Colorado City, Colorado10 Territorial capital, federally unrecognized (18611862)
Golden, Colorado10 Territorial capital (18621867)
Denver, Colorado10 Current state capital

New Haven, Connecticut Co-capital with Hartford (17011873)
Hartford, Connecticut Current

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New Castle, Delaware Colonial capital
Dover, Delaware Current state capital

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St. Augustine, Florida28 Capital of British East Florida, territorial capital (18211824, dual capital with Pensacola)
Pensacola, Florida28 Capital of British West Florida, territorial capital (18211824, dual capital with St. Augustine)
Tallahassee, Florida28 Territorial capital (18241845), state capital (1845–current)

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Savannah, Georgia27 Colonial capital, state capital (17771778, 1782, 1784, 1785)
Heard's Fort, Georgia27 Temporary state capital (17801781)
Ebenezer, Georgia27 Temporary state capital (1782)
Augusta, Georgia27 State capital (17791780, 17811784 alternated with Savannah, et al., 17861796)
Louisville, Georgia27 State capital (17961806)
Milledgeville, Georgia27 State capital (18071864, 18651868)
Macon, Georgia27 Temporary state capital during American Civil War (18641865)
Atlanta, Georgia27 State capital (1868–current)

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Lahaina, Hawaii Capital of the Kingdom of Hawaii (—1840)
Honolulu, Hawaii Current state capital

Lewiston, Idaho15 Territorial (18631864)
Boise, Idaho15 Territorial capital, current state capital

Kaskaskia, Illinois26 Territorial capital (18091818)
Vandalia, Illinois26 State capital (18191839)
Springfield, Illinois26 State capital (1839–current)

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Vincennes, Indiana Territorial capital (18001813)
Corydon, Indiana 1816–1825
Indianapolis, Indiana Current state capital

Burlington, Iowa21 Wisconsin Territory capital (18371838), top-gap territorial capital 18381841
Iowa City, Iowa21 Territorial, first state (18411857)
Des Moines, Iowa21 Current state capital

Pawnee near Fort Riley, Kansas19 Territorial capital (1855)
Lecompton, Kansas Territorial capital for pro-slavery government
Topeka, Kansas19 Territorial capital (18591861 under Wyandotte constitution), state capital (1861–current)

Danville, Kentucky Capital of Virginia's Kentucky District
Bowling Green, Kentucky Capital of the state's Confederate government
Frankfort, Kentucky Current state capital

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New Orleans, Louisiana 18121830, 18311841, 18651880
Donaldsonville, Louisiana 1830
Opelousas, Louisiana 1862 in war
Shreveport, Louisiana 1863
Baton Rouge, Louisiana Current state capital

Portland, Maine25 State capital (18201827 de jure, 1832 de facto)
Augusta, Maine25 State capital (1827 de jure, 1832 de facto–current)

St. Mary's City, Maryland Colonial capital ( —1694)
Baltimore, Maryland1 U.S. national capital (17761777)
Annapolis, Maryland1 Current state capital (initially named Anne Arundel Town), U.S. national capital (17831784)

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Boston, Massachusetts Massachusetts Bay Colony capital, current state capital (1630—)

Detroit, Michigan23 Territorial capital (18051837, occupied by British forces 18121813), first state capital (18371847)
Lansing, Michigan23 State capital (1847–current)

Saint Paul, Minnesota14 Territorial capital (18491858), state capital (1858–current)

Natchez, Mississippi20 Territorial capital (17981802)
Washington, Mississippi20 Territorial capital (18021817)
Natchez, Mississippi20 State capital (18171821)
Jackson, Mississippi20 State capital (renamed from LeFleur's Bluff, 1821–current)

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St. Louis, Missouri Territorial capital
Saint Charles, Missouri 18211825
Jefferson City, Missouri Current state capital

Bannack, Montana22 Territorial capital (18641865)
Virginia City, Montana22 Territorial capital (18651875)
Helena, Montana22 Territorial capital (18751889), state capital (1889–current)

Omaha, Nebraska Territorial capital
Lincoln, Nebraska Current state capital

Carson City, Nevada12 Territorial capital, current state capital
New Hampshire

Portsmouth, New Hampshire17 Colonial, state ( —1808)
Exeter, New Hampshire Revolutionary War capital
Concord, New Hampshire16 Current state capital
New Jersey

Elizabethtown, New Jersey Colonial capital (—1686)
Princeton, New Jersey1 U.S. national capital (1783)
Trenton, New Jersey1 U.S. national capital (1784), current state capital
New Mexico

Mesilla, New Mexico Capital of Confederate Arizona Territory
Santa Fe, New Mexico Current state capital
New York

New York, New York Colonial, under British rule (16641777), U.S. national capital (17851790), state capital (17891797)
Kingston, New York (1777)
Hurley, New York (Oct–Dec 1777)
Poughkeepsie (~1777)
Albany, New York Current state capital
North Carolina  

Charlestown, Carolina Early colonial, before division of Carolina
New Bern, North Carolina 1794
Raleigh, North Carolina Current state capital
North Dakota

Bismarck, North Dakota Dakota territorial (18831889), current state capital

Chillicothe, Ohio 18031810, 18121816
Zanesville, Ohio 18101812
Columbus, Ohio Current state capital

Tahlequah, Oklahoma Cherokee Nation capital
Ninih Waiya Choctaw Nation capital
Tishomingo, Oklahoma Chickasaw Nation capital
Tuskahoma Choctaw Nation capital
Okmulgee, Oklahoma Creek Nation capital
Wewoka, Oklahoma Seminole Nation capital
Guthrie, Oklahoma Territorial capital 18891910
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Current state capital

Oregon City, Oregon Territorial capital (18481851)
Corvallis, Oregon Territorial capital (1855)
Salem, Oregon Current state capital

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania1 Colonial capital, first state capital ( —1799), U.S. national capital (1776, 1777, 17781783, 17901800)
Lancaster, Pennsylvania1 U.S. national capital (1777), state capital 17991812
York, Pennsylvania1 U.S. national capital (17771778)
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Current state capital
Rhode Island

Providence, Rhode Island Current state capital
South Carolina  

Charleston, South Carolina Was early colonial Charlestown, Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina Current state capital
South Dakota

Yankton, South Dakota Dakota territorial (18611883)
Pierre, South Dakota Current state capital

Knoxville, Tennessee24 Southwest Territory capital (first called White's Fort, 17911796), state capital (17961812, 1817)
Murfreesboro, Tennessee24 State capital (18181826)
Nashville, Tennessee24 State capital (18121817, 1826–current)

Washington, Texas First capital of the Republic of Texas, today called Washington-on-the-Brazos
Marshall, Texas Civil War Capital of exiled pro-Confederate state officials and ousted Governor of Missouri
Galveston, Texas Temporary capital of the Republic of Texas
Harrisburg, Texas Temporary capital of the Republic of Texas
Velasco, Texas Temporary capital of the Republic of Texas
Columbia, Texas Temporary capital of the Republic of Texas, today called West Columbia
Houston, Texas Capital of the Republic of Texas from 1837 to 1839
Austin, Texas Current state capital (initially named Waterloo; changed in 1839)

Fillmore, Utah Territorial capital
Salt Lake City, Utah Current state capital

Windsor, Vermont Early meeting place for independent Vermont legislature
Montpelier, Vermont13 State capital (1805–current)

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Jamestown, Virginia First Colonial capital
Williamsburg, Virginia Second colonial capital (initially Middle Plantation)
Yorktown, Virginia Third colonial capital
Danville, Virginia Confederate States national capital (April 3, 1865April 10, 1865)
Richmond, Virginia Confederate States national capital (May 29, 1861April 9, 1865), current state capital

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Olympia, Washington11 Territorial, current
West Virginia

Wheeling, West Virginia First state capital, 18631870, and again 18751885
Charleston, West Virginia State capital, 18701875, 1885–present

Belmont, Wisconsin Territorial capital
Madison, Wisconsin Current state capital

Cheyenne, Wyoming18 Territorial capital (18691890), state capital (1890–current)


See also

U.S. state lists
Capitals | Largest cities | Date of statehood | Never territories | Name etymologies | Area
Elevation | Population | Population density | Postal abbreviations | Time zone
   Traditional abbreviation | Unemployment rate | Current and former capitals | State insignia   
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United States

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