Pinguicula

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Butterwort
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Pinguicula_vulgaris.JPG
Pinguicula vulgaris


Common Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Lamiales
Family:Lentibulariaceae
Genus:Pinguicula
Species

See text

The genus Pinguicula, or butterworts, is a group of 79 carnivorous plants in the family Lentibulariaceae.

It operates by luring insects onto the sticky surfaces of its leaves, which retain the prey and suffocate it with mucilage. The edges of the leaves have the ability to slowly curl over the prey item, trapping it and allowing it to be digested over time by enzymes secreted by the leaves. Most species feed on small flies and use the nitrogen and phosphate they acquire from the protein and nucleic acids present in the prey to supplement the little they can acquire from the generally poor soils in which they grow.

This is a picture of a   being digested by a Pinguicula. Note the sticky drops which catch the prey.
Enlarge
This is a picture of a formicine ant being digested by a Pinguicula. Note the sticky drops which catch the prey.

Butterworts have a cosmopolitan distribution throughout the Northern hemisphere in North America, Europa and Asia. They exhibit a number of adaptations to different climates.

Some species from Northern Europe, such as Pinguicula grandiflora, form non-carnivorous hibernacula during the winter months, which resemble very small bulbs; others, such as the Mexican Pinguicula moranensis form non-carnivorous leaves during the winter.

This is probably an adaptation to the absence of prey during the winter, which would make the production of expensive carnivous leaves unfavourable.

Most butterworts reliably produce large and attractive flowers, which has led to a popularity with growers of carnivorous plants. Butterworts are generally easy to cultivate, although most have very limited root systems and do not appreciate being disturbed during the growing season. They may be readily propagated by seed, division, and in some cases, by leaf cuttings.

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Pinguiculaemarginata1web.jpg
Pinguicula emarginata
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Pinguiculaesseriana1web.jpg
Pinguicula esseriana
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Pinguiculagrandiflora1web.jpg
Pinguicula grandiflora
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Pinguiculalaueana1web.jpg
Pinguicula laueana
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Pinguiculaprimulifora1web.jpg
Pinguicula primuliflora

Species

  • Pinguicula acuminata
  • Pinguicula agnata
  • Pinguicula albida
  • Pinguicula algida
  • Pinguicula alpina : Alpine Butterwort
  • Pinguicula antarctica
  • Pinguicula balcanica
    • Pinguicula balcanica var. tenuilaciniata
  • Pinguicula benedicta
  • Pinguicula caerulea : Blueflower Butterwort
  • Pinguicula calderoniae
  • Pinguicula calyptrata
  • Pinguicula casabitoana
  • Pinguicula chilensis
  • Pinguicula clivorum
  • Pinguicula colimensis
  • Pinguicula corsica
  • Pinguicula crassifolia
  • Pinguicula crenatiloba
  • Pinguicula crystallina
    • Pinguicula crystallina ssp. hirtiflora
  • Pinguicula cyclosecta
  • Pinguicula debbertiana
  • Pinguicula elizabethiae
  • Pinguicula elongata
  • Pinguicula emarginata
  • Pinguicula esseriana
  • Pinguicula ehlersiae
  • Pinguicula filifolia
  • Pinguicula gigantea
  • Pinguicula gracilis
  • Pinguicula grandiflora
  • Pinguicula grandiflora ssp. rosea
  • Pinguicula greenwoodii
  • Pinguicula gypsicola
  • Pinguicula hemiepiphytica
  • Pinguicula heterophylla
  • Pinguicula imitatrix
  • Pinguicula immaculata
  • Pinguicula involuta
  • Pinguicula ionantha : Godfrey's Butterwort, Violet Butterwort
  • Pinguicula jackii
  • Pinguicula jaumavensis
  • Pinguicula kondoi
  • Pinguicula lauenana
  • Pinguicula laxifolia
  • Pinguicula leptoceras
  • Pinguicula lignicola
  • Pinguicula lilacina
  • Pinguicula longifolia
    • Pinguicula longifolia ssp. causensis
    • Pinguicula longifolia ssp. dertosensis
    • Pinguicula longifolia ssp. reichenbachiana
  • Pinguicula lusitanica
  • Pinguicula lutea : Yellow Butterwort
  • Pinguicula macroceras : California Butterwort
    • Pinguicula macroceras var. macroceras : California Butterwort
    • Pinguicula macroceras var. microceras : California Butterwort
    • Pinguicula macroceras ssp. nortensis
  • Pinguicula macrophylla
  • Pinguicula mesophytica
  • Pinguicula mirandae
  • Pinguicula moctezumae
  • Pinguicula moranensis
  • Pinguicula mundi
  • Pinguicula nevadensis
  • Pinguicula oblongiloba
  • Pinguicula orchidioides (synonym Pinguicula stolonifera)
  • Pinguicula parvifolia
  • Pinguicula planifolia : Chapman's Butterwort
  • Pinguicula poldinii
  • Pinguicula potosiensis
  • Pinguicula primuliflora : Southern Butterwort
  • Pinguicula pumila : Small Butterwort
  • Pinguicula ramosa
  • Pinguicula rectifolia
  • Pinguicula reticulata
  • Pinguicula rotundiflora
  • Pinguicula sharpii
  • Pinguicula takakii
  • Pinguicula utricularioides
  • Pinguicula vallisneriifolia
  • Pinguicula variegata
  • Pinguicula villosa : Hairy Butterwort
  • Pinguicula vulgaris : Common Butterwort
  • Pinguicula zecheri

External link

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